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The State of the World's Aquatic Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (FAO-2019)
By definition, aquatic genetic resources (AqGR) for food and agriculture include DNA, genes, chromosomes, tissues, gametes, embryos and other early life history stages, individuals, strains, stocks and communities of organisms of actual or potential value for food and agriculture. Enhancing knowledge on their global status is an indispensable step to raise awareness on current and future needs and challenges for their conservation, sustainable use and development. The Report on The State of the World’s Aquatic Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, as the first global assessment of the status of AqGR, represents an important step forward in this regard. The main sources of information for the preparation of this assessment were reports submitted by countries on the status of their AqGR within national jurisdiction. Overall, 92 countries contributed to this country-driven process, covering approximately 96 percent of global aquaculture production and over 80 percent of global capture fisheries production.
The Report is organized into ten chapters. The first chapter provides a summary of the current status of aquaculture and capture fisheries and the markets for their products, and summarizes the outlook for these sectors. It also introduces some standard nomenclature used to describe AqGR throughout the Report and recommended for broader adoption. Chapters 2–9 deal primarily with the data from Country Reports on a range of issues. Chapter 2 reviews the use and exchange of AqGR, primarily in aquaculture, and the application of genetic technologies to AqGR. Chapter 3 explores the effects of drivers of change on farmed AqGR and their wild relatives. Chapters 4 and 5 cover, respectively, the status of in situ and ex situ conservation of AqGR. Chapter 6 identifies the stakeholders in AqGR and their roles in the conservation, sustainable use and development. Chapter 7 reviews national policies and legislation governing AqGR. Chapter 8 reviews research, training and extension on AqGR, such as national coordination and networking. Chapter 9 deals with international collaboration on AqGR, including the roles of various mechanisms and instruments through which countries cooperate. The final chapter clarifies the needs and challenges that arise from the key messages identified in the preceding chapters.